Interventional Radiology and Vascular West Houston Radiology Interventional Radiology and Vascular Services and Procedures Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Kyphoplasty Interventional Oncology Neuro Spine Intervention Pelvic Embolization Peripheral Vascular Disease Uterine Fibroid Embolization Varicocele Embolization Interventional radiology offers a multitude of image-guided, minimally invasive procedures encompassing many different organ systems and disease processes. Many of the procedures can be comfortably performed in an outpatient setting with moderate sedation, and eliminate the need for more invasive, open surgeries with general anesthesia. Biliary and Genitourinary Interventions – Stents can be placed under x-ray and ultrasound guidance across blockages within the biliary or urinary systems. Percuatateous Biopsy – Nodules, lymph nodes, or masses can be sampled by placing small needles through the skin under either ultrasound or CT guidance. This is commonly performed for areas in the liver, lung, breast, and neck, but can be done for nearly every organ or area of the body. Percuataneous Aspiration and Drainages – Neeldes and/or small drainage tubes can be placed under image guidance into fluid collections with in the chest, abdomen or pelvis. Transjugular Intrahepatice Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) – In cases of advanced liver disease, fibrosis can prevent the normal passage of blood from the portal vein to the heart, leading to dilated veins- varices, or fluid build-up in the abdomen- ascites. A bypass stent can be placed through the liver using catheters advanced from the jugular vein in the neck under x-ray guidance. Deep Venous Thrombosis/Pulmonary Embolism – Clots within the legs or lungs can be removed, fragmented or chemically dissolved using small catheters and devices advanced under x-ray guidance through the veins of the legs or neck. Inferior Vena Cava Filters – A permanent or retrievable metallic filter device can be placed within the main vein of the abdomen from a vein in the leg, arm or neck, to prevent clot from migrating from the legs or pelvis to the lungs. A retrievable filter can be removed once the clot has cleared and the patient no longer needs the device. Varicose Vein Therapy – Dilated superficial veins of the legs are the result of faulty valves in the veins, which then allow reflux and stasis of blood flow. This can be treated by closing the faulty veins and sources of reflux with endovenous ablation, such as endovenous laser therapy (EVLT) , sclerosant therapy, and/or microphlebectomy. Vascular Interventions Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Stent-Grafting – Through small incisions in the groin, catheters can be placed into the vessels and advanced into the abdominal aorta. A tube, or stent-graft, is then advanced through the catheters and deployed, under x-ray guidance, within the aorta in order to redirect and exclude blood flow from the aneurysm. In certain cases, this can eliminate the need for open surgery. Peripheral Vascular Interventions – Catheters can be inserted and advanced through vessles under x-ray guidance. Contrast is then injected during x-ray to demonstrate areas of narrowing. Balloon-tipped catheters are then used to open up narrowing. Stents can also be deployed to help keep a vessel open and restore blood flow to a vessel or limb. Embolization – Small particles or metallic coils can be advanced through catheters and into vessels under x-ray guidance in order to decrease or eliminate blood flow. This can be a live-saving technique in cases of severe bleeding from trauma or other causes of internal hemorrhage. Uterine Artery Embolization – Decreasing the blood flow to the uterus can decrease many of the symptoms associated with fibroids. Varicocele embolization – Backflow of blood into the veins of the testicles can result in varicosities, which can be a source of scrotal pain and infertility.